accessibility ACCESSIBILITY


Implant Dentist Aberdeen, NJ - William Moskowitz, DDS - Periodontal Gum Disease

Report by The Food and Drug Administration

In 1986 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published the Report of the Sugars Task Force. An FDA task force had devoted three years to reviewing worldwide research concerning the relationship of sugars and health. As for dental caries, the FDA task force made the following observations:

1. The etiology of dental caries is multi-factorial. Oral microbial flora, host factors (such as resistance to dental decay and hardness of tooth surface) and dietary factors (influencing the residence time of fermentable carbohydrates and plaque acidity) are the major factors involved in the development of carious lesions.

2. The consumption of all fermentable carbohydrates facilitates the development of plaque, dental caries and periodontal disease.

3. Many foods can modify cariogenic potential, and there is no apparent simple relationship between the sugar content of foods and cariogenic potential.

4. The incidence of dental caries in the United States is declining and modern preventive dental methods (including fluoridation, topical fluoride treatments, dental sealants and programs to improve oral hygiene) have contributed to and are expected to continue to augment this decline.

5. Available scientific literature and the results of clinical trials do not establish a quantitative relationship between sugar consumption and the incidence of dental caries because of the many factors that influence plaque formation and enamel dissolution.

Baby Bottle Tooth Decay

"Baby bottle tooth decay," which contributes substantially to the national caries incidence, is caused by frequent and prolonged exposure of teeth to liquids containing sugars, including milk, formula, fruit juice and other sweetened drinks. An infant's dental health is threatened when a bottle, containing any such liquid, is used as a pacifier. Prolonged exposure of teeth to liquids containing sugars gives rise to a characteristic pattern of severe caries, particularly on the maxillary incisors, where there is low salivary flow during sleep.

To prevent "baby bottle tooth decay," parents should be counseled to avoid using a bottle as a pacifier (unless it contains only water) and to wipe their infants teeth and gums clean daily.

Caries-promoting properties of starches.

Researchers now recognize that starches, like sugars, are caries-promoting because they provide sugars for bacterial metabolism. When starches are heated during food processing, a significant percentage of them are changed into sugars, particularly maltose and glucose. Furthermore, in the mouth, amylase causes cooked starches to split into glucose and maltose. Only small amounts of these sugars are required by plaque bacteria to produce acid. One may believe that it is dentally safe to consume starch-containing foods, although, in reality, they give rise to sugars. Since cooked starches dissolve slowly in the mouth, until they clear, they act as oral sugar reservoirs. Recent cariogenicity research indicates that since starches retard sugar clearance, foods which combine starches and sugars generally appear to be relatively more acidogenic than foods which contain sugars alone.

Oral retention and food clearance.

The speed at which food clears from the mouth is associated closely with its caries-promoting potential. Prolonged oral retention of food leads to extended acid formation, frequently for several hours. Thus, carbohydrate foods that clear more slowly are expected to be more caries-promoting. Physical characteristics that affect salivation and food clearance include coarseness, solubility, texture, and adhesiveness.

Patients should be made aware that "sticky" and "chewy" are subjective perceptions which generally do not correlate with a food's speed of oral clearance. Contrary to popular belief, research shows that some foods commonly perceived as "sticky," such as caramels, clear from the mouth faster than other foods not generally thought of as "sticky," including crackers, breakfast cereals, potato chips, dried fruit, and bread.


Recent findings have increased our knowledge about the complex relationship between foods, saliva and caries. "Tasty" foods stimulate greater salivary production. Sugar-containing foods tend to stimulate more salivary flow than do starch-containing foods. A food's stimulation of salivary flow increases its speed of oral clearance. The high levels of calcium and phosphate in saliva inhibit demineralization and enhance remineralization. Bicarbonate buffers in saliva help to neutralize plaque acid. Importantly, salivary enzymes transform starches into soluble sugars, enabling them to clear from the mouth.

Dietary Modification

Most foods contain orally fermentable carbohydrates and therefore have the potential to participate in the caries process. Although some parents have been successful in modifying the frequency of their children's eating occasions and/or their children's' food choices, it does little good for parents to tell their children that candy is bad for their teeth, but that raisins are good. To prevent cavities, all children should brush twice daily with an ADA-approved fluoride dentifrice, obtain systemic fluorides through either drinking water or daily supplements and have pit-and-fissure sealants placed on their molar teeth soon after they erupt.


Read what people are saying about us.

read more


I have been a patient of Dr. Moskowitz for more than twenty years. I have had the privilege of knowing his professional and courteous staff as well. They have also treated many members of my family including four of my grandchildren currently. Over the years I have been continually impressed with the modern office facilities. It is always clean and very well maintained. The staff is made up of many familiar faces, some have been there since I started with the practice. They are current and up to date on their professional knowledge and always create a comfortable atomosphere whether my visit is a routine cleaning or a tooth repair. I would highly recommend Dr. Moskowitz to any patient looking for a knowledgeable, caring and friendly dental office. I couldn't imagine leaving my dental care to any other.

Ron S. Marlboro, NJ

I can personally attest to the type of dental practice that is run by Dr. Moskowitz. I recently had a sledding accident in the middle of a blizzard which shifted my front tooth. Dr. Moskowitz immediately braved the storm to meet me in his office. When we arrived at the office there was no power so he began the successful repair of my tooth by flashlight. It is evident that Dr. Moskowitz is a high quality dentist who cares about his patients. He will go above and beyond what is expected of a family dental practice. All of the staff contributes to the warm, professional and personal experience each time I enter the office. My wife and three children all use this practice and we would not go anywhere else. I confidently and strongly recommend Dr. Moskowitz and all his office staff.

Jonathan R. Marlboro, NJ

I have been a patient of Dr. Moskowitz for many years. Dr. Moskowitz and his professional welcoming staff are fantastic. They are caring and sensitive and make you feel completely comfortable.

After a recent accident in which I required emergency dental work his experience, wisdom and knowledge along with a comprehensive high tech approach was extremely comforting. I have truly appreciated Dr. Moskowitz and his staff's kind compassionate care throughout my extensive procedures. Thank you Dr. Moskowitz for taking such great care of me!

Suzy J. Jackson, NJ

View More

Contact Us.We encourage you to contact us with any questions or comments you may have. Please call our office or use the quick contact form.